Food commodities are packaged and hygienically transported to protect and preserve them from any un-acceptable alteration in quality, before reaching the end-consumer. Food packaging continues to evolve along-with the innovations in material science and technology, as well as in light of consumer's demand. Presently, the modern consumers of competitive economies demands for food with natural quality, assured safety, minimal processing, extended shelf-life and ready-to-eat concept. Innovative packaging systems, not only ascertains transit preservation and effective distribution, but also facilitates communication at the consumer levels. The technological advances in the domain of food packaging in twenty-first century are mainly chaired by nanotechnology, the science of nano-materials.
Examination of performance of glassy carbon paste electrode modified with gold nanoparticle and xanthine oxidase for xanthine and hypoxanthine detection. In addition, it can offer routes to added value crops or environmental remediation. Nanotechnology applications for food and bioprocessing industries. E-mail: head. Food Prot.
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Microcrystalline Pbs nano technology lubricant MCC consists of huge quantity of cellulose microcrystals associated with amorphous areas Petersson and Oksman, Cellulose 21— Cellulose-based nanofibers or nanowhiskers Cellulose, the building material of long fibrous cells, is a highly strong natural polymer. Access to O 2 in the food package reduces the shelf-life of product owing to diverse degradation processes such as browning, Jenna haze anal internal, growth of aerobic microflora, lessening of vitamins, off-odors, off-flavors libricant undesirable color changes. For the enhancement of signal strength of indicator, 2-aminomethylpropanol AMP was used as an additive to the chitosan solution. Table 2 Details of ranges of test data. Procedia Food Sci.
Both pure petroleum-based hydrocarbon mixture and lubricants based on synthetic hydrocarbon-type blends e.
- Our patented nano diamond technology completely revolutionizes lubricant performance.
- Every lubricant oil consists of a base oil and a mixture of additives that improve the characteristics and performance of the oil.
- Many scientific researchers have been published on the tribological properties of nanoparticles-based lubricants and the phenomena regarding any mechanical system in relation to friction and wear, strongly depends upon the characteristics of the nanoparticles, such as shape, size and concentration within the lubricant.
- The Consumer Products Inventory lists over 1, products that have been identified by the manufacturer as containing nanoparticles — particles between one and nanometres between one and billionths of a metre across.
The present investigation summarizes detailed experimental studies with standard lubricants of commercial quality known as Racer-4 of Hindustan Petroleum Corporation India dispersed with different mass concentrations of nanoparticles of Cu and TiO 2.
The test bench is fabricated with a four-stroke Hero-Honda motorbike hydraulically loaded at the rear wheel with proper instrumentation to record the fuel consumption, the load on the rear wheel, and the linear velocity. The empirical relation correlates with the observed data with reasonable accuracy. Further, extension of the analysis by developing a mathematical model has revealed a definite improvement in brake thermal efficiency which ultimately affects the fuel economy by diminishing frictional power in the system with the introduction of nanoparticles into the lubricant.
The performance of the engine seems to be better with nano Cu-Racer-4 combination than the one with nano TiO 2. At a very galloping speed, the human needs and demands for comforts are increasing in every corner of the world. Consequentially, the consumption of energy resources is indiscriminatingly planned without looking into the grave situation that might arise in the near future. The increase in entropy and the environmental pollutions in every sector affect very seriously our well-being and life on this planet.
The two-stroke engine is rated as the worst offender because of reasons: first, it emits high quantities of hydrocarbons, and second, a large quantity of the unburnt fuel is vented out. The density of two-wheeler vehicular transport increases day by day region wise in the world year after year in course of time in line with the increase in comforts and living standards of the citizens. The prescribed emission norms for the two wheelers as per BS II standards are as follows:.
In very thickly populated regions Barbecue swingers the metropolitan cities, it definitely affects the health leading to ill health and severe respiratory problems. Besides, the fuel consumption rate is enormously high due to slow-moving two wheeler vehicular transports in busy localities. Hence, attention is bestowed to conserve the fuel for better future by employing safer alternative sources and conservation of fuel by improving overall efficiencies of the existing systems.
Application of nano fluids in several engineering practices is gaining paramount importance, and in the literature, many studies related to nano tribology [ 1 - 12 ] can be found. The specifications of the motor bike are as follows:.
Fuel is petrol of general quality sold in the commercial outlets situated in local areas. The motorbike is a new one from the dealer, and hence initially the bike is run with lubricant Racer-4, covering a mileage of km so that the rotating and reciprocating components in the engine are well lubricated and minor manufacturing or Pbs nano technology lubricant flaws can be ruled out.
The bike is mounted firmly on the test platform with the front wheel firmly gripped in the special vice designed for the purpose. Besides, the frame of Pbs nano technology lubricant is vertically held in position with the rear wheel resting on two freely rotating rollers mounted on special bearings. The surface of the rollers is specially made with corrugations to avoid slipping of the rear wheel during experimentation.
A hydraulic dynamometer arrangement loads the rear wheel, and its magnitude is measured with the aid of proper digital measuring device at a specific rotational speed.
The fuel line to the engine is through a digital measuring device to register fuel consumption rate with good accuracy. Under running conditions, a blower is used to blow air over the finned surface of the cylinder to cool the engine-simulating actual road conditions. The cooling arrangement is made to reduce the heat buildup in the engine, preventing adverse effects on lubrication and hence the mileage.
The lubricant used in the bike is to lubricate the reciprocating parts like piston-cylinder Families nudist resorts rotary parts in the gear drive. Therefore, the test procedure takes into account the sliding friction as well as gear friction and the frictional power lost in overcoming them. The brake power can be calculated using the relation:. One of the major hurdles in introducing the nano material into the racer is agglomeration, inhibiting ideal homogeneity and dispersion.
It is a 4-stroke bike engine oil-cum-gear oil with a grade of SAE 20W Since the base lubricant is a popular commercial lubricant, it already contains some amount of dispersant, and hence in this study, no additional dispersant is added to the base lubricant. The required quantity is made in batches of c. The batchwise sample is subjected to ultrasonic vibrations for a maximum period of 8 h. Before the sample is charged into the sump of the motorbike, it is subjected to additional 20 h of mixing using the sonicator.
The viscosity of a Larkspur moms group is closely related to its ability to reduce friction. If the lubricant is too thick, then it will require a lot of energy to move the surfaces, and if it is too thin, then the surfaces will rub and the friction will increase. Viscosity index indicates the variation of viscosity with temperature. The best oils with the Nude pictures of jordan monroe VI will not vary much in viscosity over such a temperature range and therefore will perform well throughout.
The samples were tested for kinematic viscosity and viscosity index of the oil is calculated. It can also be observed that there is a reduction in the kinematic viscosity with the addition of TiO Sexual harassed dog nanoparticles.
It can be concluded that the influence of viscosity on mileage of the motor bike is minimal and negligible at lower concentrations of nanoparticles. C engine are many, and these cannot be comprehensively described in the framework of a physical model. Hence, it can be described as a thermal system, following the principles of thermodynamics. The input thermal energy due to combustion of the fuel is partially utilized to do mechanical work to create mobility at a certain velocity under specified load conditions on the wheel.
The heat balance sheet cannot be accurately drawn because of lack of information regarding frictional losses, thermal losses from the exhaust of the burnt gases, and other unaccounted losses. They cannot be separately segregated for a stationary vehicle. The best alternative is to conduct as many tests as possible and subject the data for statistical regression analysis. Functional relationships Equations 5 and 6i. Analytically, Equations 5 and 6 are subjected to Newton-Raphson method of analysis to check the correctness of the intercepts on the abscissa.
The agreement with the values shown in the plot is very satisfactory, justifying the continuity of the functions, i. It can be inferred that the addition of nano Cu reduced the frictional component substantially. However, these magnitudes include the heat losses from the cylinder and other unaccounted for losses. Thus, the increase in brake thermal efficiency will lead to fuel conservation.
The variation of fuel consumption with the variable Z is represented by the relationship:. The performance of the bike with a different type of nano TiO 2 with 0.
The reason for such a decrease in the frictional power can be due to two factors, viz. Hence, to establish the plausible reasons, the Pbs nano technology lubricant is conceptually formulated with the aid of hydrodynamic lubrication theory. In practice, the rubbing surfaces between the liner and the piston ring cannot be parallel but the gap in between is varying with the lubricant medium in the film facilitating load bearing.
Hence, subsequently from theoretical considerations, the likely reasons are investigated. F r is the friction factor parameter defined by the term. The frictional power F P can be estimated as follows:. Thus, the values F P can be estimated from the pressure profile.
Variation of liquid film thickness between the piston ring and cylinder liner. After conducting ASTM 4 ball wear tests, the balls of wear test were subjected to XRD analysis for possible deposition of copper nanoparticle. X-ray-scattering techniques are a family of nondestructive analytic techniques which reveal information about the crystallographic structure, chemical composition, and physical properties of materials and thin films. These techniques are based on observing the scattered intensity of an X-ray beam hitting a sample as a function of incident and scattered angle, polarization, and wavelength or energy.
From the graph, it can be noted that along with iron Fenickel Nichromium Croxygen Oand copper Cu can also Rapidshare bam magera sex seen at peaks of the plot. This suggests that small amount of copper nanoparticles deposit on the surface of the ball and form a protective coating Mending effect ,thereby offering resistance to wear and reducing the friction.
Though the present tests and studies are limited to nano lubricants with Cu and TiO 2the typical exhaust gas analysis is presented. It is premature to comment on the exhaust gas analysis. To conclude, further detailed data must be collected and analyzed. The nano lubricants dispersed with nano Cu in 0. The gradients in the characteristics for nano lubricants are found to be steeper. Introduction of nanonoparticles into the lubricant effectively reduces the overall frictional power.
This aspect is clear from the intercepts of fuel consumption characteristics with the brake power abscissa. The reduction in frictional power may be due to substantial decrease in coefficient of friction between reciprocating and rotating parts.
However, this Black ass and tits is to be further ascertained. The assessment of life of the nano lubricant with Cu and TiO 2 in terms of total mileage is still a matter of further examination.
It is found to yield fuel economy promoting fuel conservation in view of the increasing number of two- and four-stroke motorbikes on the road. The technology is still to be developed to inhibit unwanted agglomeration of Cu nano over a period of time in the lubricant. The study indicates that if nanochemistry offers a solution to this problem, the dispersion with nm Cu and TiO 2 stands fairly a good chance in the lubrication technology as applied to I.
VS is the Principal Investigator of the HPCL sponsored project and has done extensive experimentation on lubricants dispersed with nano particles. He performed the statistical and regression analysis in the project.
VDR is an external expert and adviser of the project. He has been assisting by the way of course correction during the progress of the project.
AKK is a research scholar who worked in the project assisting the Principal Investigator. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial assistance received from Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. The authors thank Dr. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Nanoscale Res Lett v. Nanoscale Res Lett. Published online Mar Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Corresponding author. Pullela K Sarma: moc. Received Oct 13; Accepted Mar Abstract The present investigation summarizes detailed experimental studies with standard lubricants of commercial quality known as Racer-4 of Hindustan Petroleum Corporation India dispersed with different mass concentrations of nanoparticles of Cu and TiO 2. Introduction At a very galloping speed, the human needs and demands for comforts are increasing in every corner of the world.
The specifications of the motor bike are as follows: No.
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In case of modified atmosphere packaging MAP , the headspace O 2 concentration is either deliberately reduced to an optimal level or entirely eliminated as per food product requirements. Food Control. Active packaging and its association with nanotechnology Adapted from Mihindukulasuriya and Lim, Similar toxicity has been observed in intestinal epithelial cells Bohmert et al. Evaluation of the toxicity of food additive silica nanoparticles on gastrointestinal cells. Singh grouped TTIs into three basic types viz. Food applications of nanotechnologies: an overview of opportunities and challenges for developing countries. Rhim and Ng explored the approach of enzyme adsorption into nanoclays incorporated to polymers. Preparation of DDP-coated PbS nanoparticles and investigation of the anti wear ability of the prepared nanoparticles as additive in liquid paraffin. Legislation and strategies should be framed prudently for the sake of civilization concerning the management and application of nanomaterial in food packaging systems.
Nsikan Akpan Nsikan Akpan. Getting ketchup out of the bottle wasn't always so smooth or easy.
Researchers of the centre and of the University of Tartu will start to develop a nanotechnology lubricant suitable for extreme conditions. Shuttles and equipment used in space consist of numerous elements and have several friction-prone details, the surface of which must be greased to ensure smooth operation. Due to extreme temperature, pressure and radiation conditions, conventional oils and greases cannot be used in space. This is why solid substances such as molybdenum disulfide and graphite are preferred for space usage. These materials are continuously developed to achieve a sufficiently long action time and reliability required for space applications.